Complete REferences List

  1. Abisaab, J., Balsari, S., Ali Siam, Z., Fuller, A., Hamill, K., & Leaning, J. (2014). Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Urgent Issues and Recommendations. FXB Policy Brief.

  2. Abushihab, I. (2015). Dialect and Cultural Contact, Shift and Maintenance among the Jordanians Living in Irbid City: A Sociolinguistic Study. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(4).

  3. Abuyassin, B. & Laher, I. (2016). “Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.” World Journal of Diabetes 7(8): 165-174.

  4. Achilli, L. (2015). Syrian Refugees in Jordan: a Reality Check. European University Institute Migration Policy Centre.

  5. Alafi, K. K., & Alfawaeer, M. (2014). Syrians and Business in Irbid City: Jordanian Stability and Refugees: A Qualitative Study. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(6).

  6. Alfadhli, K., & Drury, J. (2018). A Typology of Secondary Stressors Among Refugees of Conflict in the Middle East: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Jordan. PLoS Currents.

  7. Al Ahli. (2015). “صناعة اربد: غياب التسهيلات يطرد الاستثمار السوري من الأردن.” Available at:

  8. Alkheder, S., Haddad, N., Fakhoury, L., & Baqaen, S. (2009). A GIS analysis of the impact of modern practices and policies on the urban heritage of Irbid, Jordan. Cities, 26(2), 11.

  9. Al-Omari, B. (2013). “Analysis of pedestrian accidents in Irbid City, Jordan.” Open Transplantation Journal 7(1):1-6.

  10. Al-Qralla, A. (2018). “الأردن يبلغ الاتحاد الاوروبي بعدم الاستفادة من قواعد تبسيط المنشأ - صحيفة الرأي.” Al Rai. Available at:

  11. Al-Sahili, K., & Aboul-Ella, M. (1992). Accessibility of Public Services in Irbid, Jordan. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 118(1).

  12. Al-Tamini, A. (2017). “Irbid: 50 evening schools to accommodate Syrian Students.” Mahaftat. Available at:

  13. Al-Tabini, A.R. Octavio, A,W. Frank and R. Phillips. "Efficient Water Conservation in Agriculture for Growing Urban Water Demands in Jordan" Water Policy Vol. 13 (2011) 
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  14. Ay, M., Arcos Gonzalez, P., & Castro Delgado, R. (2016). The Perceived Barriers of Access to Health Care Among a Group of Non-camp Syrian Refugees in Jordan. International Journal of Health Services, 46(3), 566-589.

  15. Based Al Athamneh, A., & Al Momani, F. A. (2016). Jordanians’ Perception Towards the Impact of Syrian Refugees. Al Yarmouk University Refugee, Displaced Person and Forced Migration Studies Center.

  16. Betts, A., Ali, A., & Memişoğlu, F. (2018). Local Politics and the Syrian Refugee Crisis: Exploring Responses in Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan. Oxford Department of International Development.

  17. Brand, L. A. (2010). National Narratives and Migration: Discursive Strategies of Inclusion and Exclusion in Jordan and Lebanon. Int Migration Rev, 44(1), 78-110.

  18. Conway Morris, R. (2012). “If a City Were Perfect, What Would it Look Like?” New York Times Art Review. Online. Available at:

  19. El Nakib, S., & Ager, A. (2015). Local Faith Community and Related Civil Society Engagement in Humanitarian Response with Syrian Refugees in Irbid, Jordan. Henry Luce Foundation.

  20. Husseini, R. (2018). “More than half of women seeking workplace legal counsel have experienced sexual harassment.” Jordan Times. Available at:

  21. Jacobsen, K. (2001). The forgotten solution: local integration for refugees in developing countries. UNHCR, New Issues In Refugee Research, Working Paper (45).

  22. Kaya, L. P. (2010). The criterion of consistency: Women’s self-presentation at Yarmouk University, Jordan. American Ethnologist, 37(3), 526-538.

  23. Kelberer, V. (2017). Negotiating Crisis: International Aid and Refugee Policy in Jordan. Middle East Policy, 24(4).

  24. Kelberer, V. (2017). “Challenges and Successes of Jordan’s Work Permit Program.” Atlantic Council. Available at:

  25. Krause, S., Williams, H., Onyango, M. A., Sami, S., Doedens, W., Giga, N., . . . Tomczyk, B. (2015). Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package. Confl Health, 9(1).

  26. Lenner, K., & Turner, L. (2018). Making Refugees Work? The Politics of Integrating Syrian Refugees into the Labor Market in Jordan. Middle East Critique. doi:10.1080/19436149.2018.1462601

  27. McKelvey, K. L., Wilcox, M. L., Madhivanan, P., Mzayek, F., Khader, Y. S., & Maziak, W. (2013). Time trends of cigarette and waterpipe smoking among a cohort of school children in Irbid, Jordan, 2008–11. European Journal of Public Health, 23(5), 862-867.

  28. Ministry of Water and Irrigation. (2016). Improvement of Irbid Governorate Water NetworkPhase

  29. TWO. Al Bawaba.

  30. Na'amneh, M. M., & Husban, A. K. A. (2012). Identity in old clothes: the socio-cultural dynamics of second-hand clothing in Irbid, Jordan. Social Identities, 18(5), 12. doi:

  31. Sampson, R., Stephen., Raudenbush, J. W., & Earls, F. (1997). "Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy." Science 277:5328. pp.918-924.

  32. Setchell, C. (2017). “Thinking Outside the Tent on Humanitarian Shelter Assistance in an Increasing Urban World.” Feinstein International Center Lecture.

  33. Stevens, M. (2016). The collapse of social networks among Syrian refugees in urban Jordan. Contemporary Levant, 1(1), 51-63. doi:10.1080/20581831.2016.1153358

  34. UNHCR. (2018). “Operational Portal: Refugee Situations Jordan.” Online. Available at:

  35. UNHCR. (2018). Submission by the United National High Commissioner for Refugees For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Compilation Report Universal Periodic Review: Jordan. Available at:,,UNHCR,,JOR,,5b56fce37,0.html. [Accessed 23 August 2018].

  36. UNHCR. (2016). UNHCR Factsheet - Field Office Irbid, Jordan.

  37. UNHCR. (2013). Syria Regional Response Plan.

  38. UNHCR. (2011). Cash in hand- Urban refugees, the right to work, and UNHCR’s advocacy activities. Available at: [Accessed 23 August 2018].

  39. UNRWA. (2018). “Irbid Camp.” Online. Available at:

  40. von Koppenfels, A. (2014). Migrants or expatriates? US citizens as a migrant group. Migration Policy Practice [Online] IV:16-19. Available at:

  41. The World Bank. (2017). Cities of Refuge in the Middle East: Bringing and Urban Lens to the Forced Displacement Challenge. Available at: [Accessed 23 August 2018].